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WL 210

- Demonstration of  evaporation in a double-wall pipe evaporator made of glass
- Operation with harmless, special low boiling point liquid


Technical Description

During the generation of vapour, the medium that is to evaporate runs through different flow forms dependent on the heat transfer area. The medium flows into a tube evaporator as a single-phase fluid and exits the tube evaporator as single-phase superheated vapour. In practice, the water vapour generated in big systems is used e.g. for heating plants or machine drives. To design steam generators, it is important to have knowledge of the evaporation process with the boiling crises in order to ensure reliable operation. Boiling crises are caused by a sudden deterioration of the heat transfer, whereby the high heat flux density leads to a dangerous increase in the wall temperature.

The WL 210 experimental unit can be used to examine and visualise the evaporation process in its various flow forms. This is done by heating evaporating liquid, Solkatherm SES36, in a tube evaporator made of glass. Compared with water, this liquid has the advantage that its boiling point is at 36,7°C (1013hPa), whereby the entire evaporation process takes place at much lower temperatures and a lower heating power. The pressure can be varied via the cooling circuit. Negative pressure (vacuum) can be generated by a water jet pump in the cooling circuit.

The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.

Learning Objectives / Experiments

observation of typical forms of evaporation
- single phase liquid flow
- sub-cooled boiling
- slug flow
- annular flow
- film boiling
- dispersed flow
- single phase vapour flow
- wet steam

effect on the evaporation process by
- flow rate
- temperature
- pressure


[1] visualisation of evaporation in a tube evaporator
[2] heating and cooling medium: water
[3] tube evaporator made of double-wall glass
[4] heating circuit with heater, pump and expansion vessel
[5] safety valve protects against overpressure in the system
[6] cooling circuit with water jet pump to generate negative pressure (vacuum)
[7] evaporation circuit with CFC-free evaporating liquid Solkatherm SES36

Technical Data

- power rating: 2kW
- temperature range: 5...80°C
Heating and cooling medium: water
- 3 stages
- max. flow rate: 1,9m³/h
- max. head: 1,5m
- power consumption: 58W
Tube evaporator
- length: 1050mm
- inner diameter: 16mm
- outer diameter: 24mm
Condenser: coiled tube made of copper

Measuring ranges
- pressure: -1...1,5bar relative
- temperature: 0...100°C

Dimensions and Weight
LxWxH: 1250x790x1970mm
Weight: approx. 170kg Required for Operation
230V, 50/60Hz, 1 phase or 120V, 60Hz/CSA, 1 phase
Water connection: 500mbar, min. 320L/h; drain

Scope of Delivery

1 trainer
1kg refrigerant Solkatherm SES36
1 set of hoses
1 set of instructional material

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