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The Pelton turbine is a type of free-jet resp. impulse turbine which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the distributor. Pelton turbines are used at large heads and relatively low flow rates. The turbine power is adjusted by means of the nozzle cross-section. In practice, Pelton turbines are used for driving synchronous generators, where they run at constant speed.
The Pelton turbine HM 450.01 is an accessory for the HM 450C trainer. The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as distributor, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the Pelton wheel and the nozzle during operation. You can change the nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate by adjusting the nozzle needle.
The pressure at the turbine inlet is recorded with a pressure sensor. A force sensor and a speed sensor are attached to the band brake. Thus, the mechanical power output of the turbine can be determined. Speed, torque and pressure are displayed on the switch cabinet of HM 450C and processed further in the software. Water supply and flow rate measurement are provided by HM 450C.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
- determination of mechanical output
- determination of efficiency
- recording of characteristic curves
- investigation of the influence of the nozzle cross-section on the power output