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When flow passes through pipes, pressure losses occur due to the friction between the pipe wall and the water. The pressure loss is directly dependent on the surface roughness of the pipe inner wall, and thus on the material used. In addition, the pressure loss is affected by the flow velocity and the cross-sectional area being flowed through.
The HL 102 unit makes it possible to study the pressure loss of incompressible fluids in fully flowed through straight pipe elements. The trainer is suitable for assessing how different materials and pipe diameters affect the flow. The pipe elements used are commercially standard components in heating and sanitary engineering. The clear panel is mounted on a sturdy, movable frame.
Four straight pipe elements are mounted on the panel. These can be selected individually by ball valves. The flow is adjusted using valves in the inflow and return and read on a rotameter.
The pressure measuring points in the pipe system are designed as annular chambers and are located between the beginning and end of the measuring sections, ensuring a precise pressure measurement. The sensors are connected in pairs to a differential pressure meter and the respective differential pressure read on the display.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
investigation of the pressure losses of flow through pipes
- measurement of the pressure differential on different pipe sections
- influence of various pipe diameters
- influence of different materials and surface roughness
- effect of the flow velocity
- comparison between experiment and theory