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Steam turbines are turbomachines. In practice, steam turbines are mainly used in power plants to generate electricity. A distinction is made between turbines depending on the flow direction and state of the steam, the working process, and steam supply and discharge.
The ET 851 experimental unit is a single-stage axial impulse turbine with a vertical axis. The steam required is generated by the steam generator ET 850. The turbine can be operated with saturated steam or superheated steam. The steam is expanded in the turbine and condensed via the water-cooled condenser. Load is applied to the turbine via an eddy current brake. The turbine has a non-contact labyrinth seal on the shaft with a sealing steam circuit. The turbine is fitted with various safety devices in order to prevent damage such as by excessively high speed or pressure in the system.
Sensors record the temperature, pressure, and flow rate at all relevant points. Turbine speed and torque are measured electronically at the eddy current brake. The measured values can be read on digital displays. At the same time, the measured values can also be transmitted directly to a PC via USB. The data acquisition software is included.
The ET 851 Axial Steam Turbine, together with the ET 850 Steam Generator, forms a complete laboratory-scale steam power plant.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiments
Principle of operation of a steam turbine:
- steam consumption of the turbine
- turbine output at different settings
- investigation of the losses occurring in different turbine components
- power and torque curve
- overall efficiency compared to the theoretical efficiency
 single-stage axial impulse turbine, mounted in corrosion-resistant, sealed ball bearings
 load on the turbine by eddy current brake
 condenser with water-cooled coiled tube
 steam supply from ET 850 steam generator
 various safety devices for safe operation
 sensors and digital indicator for speed, temperature, pressure and flow rate
 GUNT software for data acquisition via USB under Windows Vista or Windows 7
Single-stage axial impulse turbine
- impeller inner diameter: 54mm
- max. speed: 40000min-1
- max. inlet pressure: 9bar abs.
- max. outlet pressure: 1bar abs.
steam inlet: 0...16bar
differential pressure: 0...50mbar
- cooling water flow rate: 0...720L/h
- speed: 0...50000min-1
- torque: 0...70Nmm
- temperature: 0...400°C
Dimensions and Weight
Weight: approx. 180kg Required for Operation 230V, 50/60Hz, 1 phase or 120V, 60Hz, 1 phase
Water connection: 350L/h, drain
Scope of Delivery
1 CD with GUNT software + USB cable
1 set of instructional materials